Annotated Bibliography: 9/11 – US Declares Eternal War

     David Crary, Jerry Schwartz, “EVIL ACTS”, Southeast Missourian, September 12, 2001, 1. available at, https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=Oc-rVwKPngoC&dat=20010912&printsec=frontpage&hl=en, accessed on 04/16/19.

The World Trade Center towers have been hit by hijackers of two airplanes. Another plane hit the Pentagon, and another crashed near Pittsburg, PA. The President called the acts evil, and acts of terror. US Navy Admiral Robert J. Natter called it the worst attack since Pearl Harbor. Death toll estimates are between 300 and 400 people on just the airliners. 200 firefighters died in the World Trade Center buildings. Authorities of the federal government identified Osama Bin Laden, who has been given asylem in Afghanistan. Cell phone calls between Bin Laden supporters, and flight attended calls were listed as evidence for this association.

     Karen Gullo, “Dozen Hijackers Linked to Bin Laden”, Southeast Missourian, September 13, 2001, 1, available at, https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=Oc-rVwKPngoC&dat=20010913&printsec=frontpage&hl=en, accessed on 04/16/19.

Law enforcement officials have said that federal authorities have identified over a dozen Osama Bin Laden-linked middle eastern hijackers in 9/11 event. The investigation spans from Canada to Florida to Massachusetts. At least four men on the list had pilots licenses. Two took shelter with family in Florida. Search warrants were issued in Florida, Massachusetts and New Jersey, for half a dozen men, though no charges have been yet filed. A man in Venice, Florida said that FBI agents said that two men who stayed in his home were involved in the incident. The FBI put out a call for law enforcement to watch for two cars related to Mr. Atta.

     Laura Johnston, “America’s Day of Prayer”, Southeast Missourian, September 15, 2001, 1, available at, https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=Oc-rVwKPngoC&dat=20010915&printsec=frontpage&hl=en, accessed on 04/16/19.

Kristy Howard spoke to the crowd at the Mount of Olives Methodist church. She spoke from the Bible. Sixty people were in attendance. Rev. Geoff Lamprea spoke at St. Mary’s Cathedral, where some members arrived in camouflage fatigues. At five to noon, hundreds of people entered churches wearing red, white and blue. Churches will remain open all week for people who seek solace. A candlelight service to memorialize the event would be held that Thursday. Many pastors were overwhelmed with helping people sort out their grief. 16 pastors met to talk about fear and helplessness at Southeast Missouri Hospital chapel.

     Ron Fournier, “Bush: We Will Win This War”, Southeast Missourian, September 16, 2001, 1, available at, https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=Oc-rVwKPngoC&dat=20010916&printsec=frontpage&hl=en, accessed on 04/16/19.

President Bush proclaimed the attack on the Twin Towers in New York to be the deadliest attack on the nation. He told Americans that a long and difficult assault on terrorism would be launched and told the US Armed Forces to prepare for war. He said he would bring terrorists to justice by smoking them out of their holes. Barbara Olson was among the dozens dead in flight 77 which hit the Pentagon. She was the wife of U.S. Solicitor General Theodore Olson. George W. Bush said that Osama Bin Laden cannot hide. Dick Cheney, Colin Powell and Condoleezza Rice were with George W. Bush at Camp David Saturday.

          Karen Gullo, “US Widens Assault on Terrorists”, Southeast Missourian, September 19, 2001, 1, available at, https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=Oc-rVwKPngoC&dat=20010919&printsec=frontpage&hl=en, accessed on 04/16/19.

John Ashcroft, the US Attorney General declared that he would engage in a “concerted national assault” against terrorism, and he broadened the investigation into the Twin Tower assault. The investigators have taken four people in as material witnesses and have questioned over seventy-five people. Immigration authorities have been given twice as much time to decide to lay charges on an incoming immigrant, in a new policy measure set. What was twenty-four hours is now doubled to forty-eight hours. Ashcroft swore to do what it takes to bring terrorists to justice and declared the creation of a new anti-terrorism task force.

     Sandra Sobieraj, “Bush: The Hour Is Coming”, Southeast Missourian, September 21, 2001, 1, available at, https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=Oc-rVwKPngoC&dat=20010921&printsec=frontpage&hl=en, accessed on 04/16/19.

President Bush announced the opening of a new Cabinet level office for homeland defense and warned US citizens of future dangers and struggles. He held the badge of a Policeman who’d been killed, in his hand, in front of a joint session of Congress. He told Congress that he would not rest or yield or forget the attackers. President Bush named the Governor of Pennsylvania as the head of the new Office of Homeland Security. Bush said that whoever does not hand over the terrorists would suffer the same fate as the terrorists themselves. Bush warned such attackers walk down a path to Fascism.

     “AMERICA UNDER ATTACK”, St. Petersburg Times Extra, September 11, 2001, 1, available at, https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=888&dat=20010912&id=64pIAAAAIBAJ&sjid=73QDAAAAIBAJ&pg=3676,5100029, accessed on 04/16/19.

While the majority of newspapers did not run a story of tower’s collapsing on 9/11/01, Florida’s Best Newspaper printed an Extra version on the afternoon of 9/11/01. Under the headline was a picture that hung over the majority of the page, leaving only a footer of information at the bottom. In small text below, a description of the picture relays that after a first tower was hit by a plane, a second plane is seen heading towards the other of the Twin Towers. The description below that is rather difficult to understand. More planes crashed, but where and why? Hundreds are missing. Are they in the towers? Only the first page of the Extra edition is saved on Google News.

          David Ballingrud, “Nationwide Hunt spreads to 3 Florida cities”, St. Petersburg Times, September 13, 2001, 1, available at, https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=feST4K8J0scC&dat=20010913&printsec=frontpage&hl=en, accessed on 04/16/19.

Federal Investigators searched a Rhode Island train, a Boston hotel and three Florida cities in what is being called the largest investigation in our nation’s history. Though it has only been 2 days, Federal agents have already identified over a dozen Middle Easter men and connected them with Osama Bin Laden and other terrorist networks. It is suspected that the suspects entered the border through Canada, and some possibly learned how to fly in Florida. Over a half dozen people in Florida and Massachusetts were arrested and questioned about a connection to the supposed hijackers, on unrelated immigration charges and local warrants.

     David Ballingrud, “Nervous nation awaits answers”, St. Petersburg Times, September 14, 2001, 1, available at, https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=feST4K8J0scC&dat=20010913&printsec=frontpage&hl=en, accessed on 04/16/19.

Just days after an attack on US soil that left people grasping for clues to questions that mount beyond any answers they hold, the prospect of entering into war becomes a stark reality. The Mayor of New York, Rudolph Giuliani, told his constituency that about 5,000 dead people were found already, but that its possible to find over 30,000 dead people by the time all the smoke is cleared. President George W. Bush is described as having a trembling voice and eyes brimming with tears, as he told the nation that he would activate many National Guard units for what will be the “first war of the 21st Century”.

     Barry Klein, Wes Allison, David Adams & Kathryn Wexler, “14 hijackers spent time in Florida”, St. Petersburg Times, September 15, 2001, 1, available at, https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=feST4K8J0scC&dat=20010915&printsec=frontpage&hl=en, accessed on 04/16/19.

Of the 19 suspected hijackers, 14 of those lived around and trained at flight training facilities in Florida. The list of 19 men’s names was released just three days after 9/11 by the US Justice Department. The majority of the men were from Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. According to unnamed US officials, only four of the men are supposedly connected to “Osama Bin Laden or his terrorist organizations”. Authorities are still trying to find the missing links between the men and terrorist financing. Attorney General John Ashcroft said that it is “clear” that there were “probably” other people involved, and said he intends to hunt them down.

     “WE’RE AT WAR Bush Braces Americans For Long Struggle”, St. Petersburg Times, September 16, 2001, 1, available at, https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=feST4K8J0scC&dat=20010915&printsec=frontpage&hl=en, accessed on 04/16/19.

Just four days after 9/11/01, President Bush told his troops to “get ready” for a “long and difficult struggle against an elusive enemy”. He named Osama Bin Laden as the prime suspect in what occurred, but promised that the actions the US would take, would reach far beyond Bin Laden. He said that he would bring to justice those who attack America, but also those who “harbor them and feed them and house them”. He assured Americans that they will get the “revenge” that they want so badly. Knight Ridder reports that senior officials claim military action will take the form of “airstrikes, commando operations and airborne raids”.

     Jerry Schwartz, “World Trade Center Collapses “, Ludington Daily News, September 11, 2001, 1, available at, https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=b0M2c_1WBrUC&dat=20010911&printsec=frontpage&hl=en, accessed on 04/16/19.

On the same day of the attacks, Ludington Daily News was already confident enough to report, that “terrorists” had crashed two planes into the World Trade Center. It is also reported that “explosions” hit the Pentagon and the State Department, and that fear was being spread across the nation. It is not reported how many people were killed in the attack, but it is noted that about 50,000 people work at the WTC towers. Chris Yates, an Aviation Expert from Jane’s Transport in London is quoted as saying, that few terrorist organizations have the organizational capabilities to pull of a job like that, and he names Osama Bin Laden as the most likely suspect on that list. President Bush has ordered an investigation into finding out who is responsible for the attack, and so the attackers are not actually known yet, in spite of claims to the contrary.

     “Powell: We will do after them”, Ludington Daily News, September 12, 2001, 1, available at, https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=b0M2c_1WBrUC&dat=20010912&printsec=frontpage&hl=en, accessed on 04/16/19.

Secretary of State Colin Powell has told his constituency that the USA will go after and get whoever is responsible for what occurred in New York a day prior. Again it is not claimed to be known, but it is suggested that survivors and dead could be found in the collapsed section of the. In a bizarre twist, reports of an unidentified aircraft in Canadian airspace prompted the evacuation of thousands of employees from the Agricultural Department’s main building, beside the National Mall. Les Dour of the FAA was quoted as not knowing anything about any such plane. While Bush shored up support from Tony Blair of the UK and John Chretien of Canada, Powell affirmed that a war was being wages “against civilization”, which the USA would answer to.

     David Espo, “‘War against terrorism vowed”, Ludington Daily News, September 13, 2001, 1, available at, https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=b0M2c_1WBrUC&dat=20010913&printsec=frontpage&hl=en, accessed on 04/16/19.

Agents were deployed to America’s reopening airports. President Bush seeks options for entering into war. 70 bodies were recovered from the Pentagon. In a bizarre twist, a bomb threat was reported to have been called in to the Pentagon, prompting the search team to stop for an entire day, and resume by 8 am three days after the “impact”. US Attorney General ordered US Marshals and other agents to airports and planes in what is being called a “new era of security”. Senator John McCain said that the response to these attacks would cost “American blood”. House Minority Leader Richard Gephardt said political leaders were as united then as they were after Congress voted to enter into the Gulf War based on false testimony from a Kuwaiti royal’s daughter.

     Tom Raum, “A day for remembrance”, Ludington Daily News, September 14, 2001, 1, available at, https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=b0M2c_1WBrUC&dat=20010914&printsec=frontpage&hl=en, accessed on 04/16/19.

President Bush announced the beginning of the “first war of the 21st century”, and named his prime suspect Osama Bin Laden. US officials indicate that rather than days, the retaliation could take “weeks or months”. The US asked Pakistan to close its border with Afghanistan, and to allow the US to fly over Pakistan during any military action. Senator John McCain spent time at Camp David, while the Secret Service increased their range of control around the White House. In another bizarre twist, Congress was evacuated before a vote, because of a bomb threat called in. Again, Bush is described as having tears in his eyes as he spoke of revenge.

     Ron Fournier, “Bush pledge: ‘Rid world of evil'”, Ludington Daily News, September 15, 2001, 1, available at, https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=b0M2c_1WBrUC&dat=20010915&printsec=frontpage&hl=en, accessed on 04/16/19.

President Bush vowed to “rid the world of evil” as he called to action 50,000 National Guard and Reservist troops. He was granted authority by congress to enter into war using “necessary and appropriate force”. American in all regions answered a call by the President for a Day of Prayer, including citizens who held a gathering at the center of Mason County, in Scottville. Congress granted victims of the tragedy and to increase security and hunt down whoever was responsible for what occurred. Bush declared a state of emergency and promised that more attacks would come to America by terrorists. Officials now state that retaliation could take several years and involve far more than the perpetrators of the 9/11 attack.

     Lisa Singhania, “Stocks tumble Trading resumes”, Ludington Daily News, September 17, 2001, 1, available at, https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=b0M2c_1WBrUC&dat=20010917&printsec=frontpage&hl=en, accessed on 04/16/19.

Investors in the stock market in New York are reportedly scared, sending markets plummeting. Dow industrial stock was down more than 620, as the stock markets opened for the first day since the attacks on 9/11. Airline stocks were the hardest to be hit. The Dow recovered to being down 492 points by mid-morning. An hour before trading began, the Federal Reserve lowered interest rates by half of a percent. National financial leaders are asking people to see it as an opportunity to buy, and not to sell. Warren Buffet told people that he wouldn’t be selling anything. Airline companies took the largest hit, due to scared consumers and new security measures.

     Jensen, S., “Remembering” Ludington Daily News, September 18,2001, 1, available at, https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=b0M2c_1WBrUC&dat=20010918&printsec=frontpage&hl=en, accessed on 04/16/19.

With one half of the front page devoted to a school board vote, and the bottom of the page reporting on WSCC enrollment numbers, Ludington Daily News seems to be transitioning away from its week-long reporting of the attacks of 9/11 and back to more regular stories. However, a large portion of the front page is devoted to three stories which relate to the attacks. The first is on a Boy Scout vigil, held in remembrance for those who lost their lives in the attacks. The second story is named “One Week Later”, and describes a scene in New York where people came together to remember the 201 people found dead, and roughly 5,000 others believed to be missing in the Twin Towers and Pentagon attacks. The third story is related to the re-opening of airports in the region, and new rules against anyone carrying a gun in the area’s airports, that isn’t a peace officer, on-duty military member or agent of a firearms manufacturer. 

     Christopher Newton, “Bush moves to build support for war”, Ludington Daily News, September 19, 2001, 1, available at, https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=b0M2c_1WBrUC&dat=20010919&printsec=frontpage&hl=en, accessed on 04/16/19.

President Bush has been making threats towards nations which are believed to be harboring terrorists and shoring up support from allies. The message sent to other countries was, that they must support a US crackdown on terrorism, or become the ones cracked down upon. Bush signed into law a $40 Billion plan to fight terrorism, which included funds for victims of the attacks and plane crashes in New York and Pennsylvania. Another signature was put on a measure which allowed Bush to use force to implement revenge against anyone he wants to call a terrorist. Although earlier numbers were in the low hundreds, authorities again repeat that they expect the death toll of the attacks to be above 5000.

     Christopher Newton, “Bush to seek unity tonight”, Ludington Daily News, September 20, 2001, 1, available at, https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=b0M2c_1WBrUC&dat=20010920&printsec=frontpage&hl=en, accessed on 04/16/19.

Bush pledged action to repair the fraying economy, while at the same time seeking unity from Americans to commit to a long war against innumerable foes globally. Donald Rumsfeld mentioned that Iraq could be one of the countries that is attacked by the USA, because they have been or are involved in sponsoring “terrorism”. Donald Rumsfeld said that it would be up to George W. Bush to decide who to attack. A speech by the President would be at 9pm, Eastern Standard Time, and would involve Bush’s attempt to make a case for naming Osama Bin Laden as the prime suspect in the investigation into the attacks.

Essay

     On the 11th of September in 2001 Police in New Jersey received several calls claiming that Middle Eastern men were seen by a white van, filming themselves in front of the World Trade Center attacks, and congratulating each other with great joy. Later those five men were arrested and held for seventy-one days and then quietly released. The FBI later admitted that at least two of the men were Mossad agents. All of them were Israeli men, who were returned to Israel. In spite of this odd connection, within a day or two, US officials reported through the media that the prime suspect in the attacks was Osama Bin Laden. It was alleged that passports belonging to the attackers survived the blaze and were found on the ground beside one of the Twin Towers. The connection between the attackers and Bin Laden was never supported by any evidence, except when four years later, Osama Bin Laden was purported to be in a media recording, admitting that he planned the attacks on the World Trade Center. This was about two years after the United States had declared global war against terrorism, invaded Afghanistan and Iraq, and passed domestic legislation authorizing warrantless spying against American citizens. All of the responses to the attacks of 9/11 were based upon guesswork made by the President and US Intel agencies. 

     It is suspicious that the Bush family and the Bin Laden family have for a long time, held business relationships related to the Bush’s oil ventures. It was convenient that it was reported, that Osama Bin Laden was exiled from his own family, meaning that there was no connection to report between himself and the rest of the Saudi royal family. It was furthermore suspicious when US forces claimed to have killed Osama Bin Laden and dumped his body overboard a helicopter, while flying over the Persian Gulf. A freedom of information act request filed after the supposed death of Bin Laden revealed that the Pentagon had no paperwork to supply, proving that it performed a DNA test to confirm the identity of Bin Laden. Conveniently, Edward Snowden leaks included files which indicated that such a test was in fact done.

     The University of Fairbanks in Alaska has conducted a study which was released in 2018, concluding that it is scientifically impossible for fire to have caused the near free-fall-speed collapse of the World Trade Center Twin Towers in 2001. Victims of the families of WTC workers have filed a lawsuit against the federal government, citing hard evidence that explosives were placed in the towers. The lawsuit has yet to conclude in court. Regardless of the outcome of the court case, it seems clear to me that 9/11 was orchestrated by Israeli, Saudi and US intelligence communities and secret services, in order to justify wars in the Middle East which had been planned for decades. The response to the manufactured crisis would also begin a new era of global security, where every nation of the world began passing legislation empowering governments to wage violent warfare against their very own citizens.

     If someone had no other information than what the newspapers reported, then it would be normal to get the impression that the enemies of America lurk under every floorboard, bedsheet and blade of grass, with incredible sophistication and organization behind their every move and intent. The response to the crisis that has arisen would involve the most brutal form of revenge, which has been declared justified. The heads of common people are filled with death tolls which are grossly overexaggerated, and claims of future attacks on them should they not allow the destruction of their very own liberty. 

     Common citizens are fed immense fear, shock and other forms of atrocity propaganda in order to fuel hatred towards a painted foe, which over the years to follow would suffer some of the worst indignities any man should ever suffer. We now live in a world where the governments gets to say what is true, and what people aren’t allowed to say, where common citizens declared radical are being put in “de-radicalization centers” in over 40 countries worldwide, and where more and more citizens are being labelled as terrorists, including journalists, activists and other dissidents. 

     In the absence of actual terrorist networks, aside from those sponsored, assisted and trained by our own nation’s forces, common citizens have now become the focus of this “new era of justice”. Thought crime is beginning to become defined, and pre-crime investigations and arrests are beginning to become normal actions by authorities. Globally, nations leaders are becoming tyrannical, increasing their power to the point of resembling despots. With such powers being granted to leaders, like in the days of Rome and Caesar, the freedoms and power of individual citizens has now been robbed and forever laid to waste. I truly fear for the sake of liberty in our times, and hope that the truth of 9/11 can come to light, before the opportunity to take advantage of it for political purposes becomes the only outcome.

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